Swadesh list for English, Lithuanian, Dingwa, Sambahsa, Prussian

Monday, June 28, 2010

Today I received an email from the creator of Dingwa, the (as far as I know) fourth tier of the IALs based on Indo-European vocabulary. The four are: Modern Indo-European (reconstructed, no holds barred), Sambahsa (somewhat reconstructed yet simplified, uses vocabulary from non-IE sources as well where needed), Dingwa (schematic yet with a very non-Eurocreole grammar), and Uropi (IE vocabulary but with a grammar very much resembling English and vocabulary uses modern forms instead of original PIE).

Out of those four then, the languages one would expect to resemble each other the most in terms of vocabulary are Dingwa and Sambahsa, so I've put them next to each other on the list. You can see that at the beginning of the list where pronouns are common they hardly resemble each other at all, but nouns resemble each other quite a bit, and verbs even more so. I've put cognates in bold, as well as where they are cognate in Lithuanian and Prussian as well, or the obvious cognates at least. Some of the words in the list are a bit iffy, kind of obvious when pointed out but perhaps not so much without any hints, so the bolding is a bit subjective. Since Dingwa is the newest addition to the list and thus the focus of attention, all the words in bold are where they resemble Dingwa.


No English Lithuanian DingwaSambahsa
Prussian
1 I ega, mena
ego, io
as
2 you, thou
Jūs, tu
twa
yu, tu
jūs,
3 he jis ona
is
tāns
4 we mes noiwey
mes
5 you (pl.)
Jūs woi
yu
jūs
6 they jie, jos
onai
ies, ias, ia, i

7 this šis ejei
so, sa, tod
šis
8 that tas, anas
onei
cis, cia, cid
stas
9 here čia edi
her

10 there ten odi
ter
stwen
11 who kas kja
qui(s), qua, quel
kas
12 what kas kwa
quod
ka
13 where kur kudi
quer
kwēi
14 when kada kudu
quan(do)
kaddan
15 how kaip kulku, kunsu
kam, quosmed
kāigi, kāi
16 not ne ...
ne
ne
ni
17 all viskas, visi
solwei
vasyo, hol, quant
wiss
18 many daug polwei
maung
tūlin
19 some kažkiek (use genitive)
sem
ainuntkawīds
20 few keletas pewei
pau(k)
mazzan
21 other kitas aljei
alyo, alter
kits
22 one vienas oineioin
aīns
23 two du dweidwo
dwāi
24 three trys trijeitri
trīs
25 four keturi

kweturei

quar
ketturei
26 five penki penkweipenk(we)
pēnkei
27 big * didelis meglei
mier
debiks
28 long * ilgas dolgeilong
ilgs
29 wide platus urweiweur
plattus
30 thick storas, tankus, tirštas
bangwei, tegwei
teug
kāmstu
31 heavy sunkus gurneigwaur
brendus
32 small * mažas minwei, pulei
smulk
līkuts
33 short trumpas morgwei, skortei
cort
īnss
34 narrow siauras angweiangh
anzuks
35 thin plonas tenwei, spalei
teun
lāils
36 woman * moteris guna
gwen(a)
genā
37 man (adult male) vyras nerawir
wīrs
38 man * (human being) žmogus wiramensc
zmūnenawins
39 kid vaikas putla
magv
malnīks
40 wife žmona snuba, guna
gvibh, esor
genā
41 husband vyras snuba, nera
mann
salūbawīrs
42 mother motina matramater
mūti
43 father tėvas patrapater
tāws
44 animal gyvulys gurja, pekwa
animal
zwīrs
45 fish * žuvis piskapisk
zuks
46 bird * paukštis owja
av
pippelis
47 hound * šuo kwona
kwaun
skalanīks
48 louse * utėlė lusalus

49 snake gyvatė serpa
serpent
āngs
50 worm kirminas werma
vehrm
kīrms
51 beam * medis spona
dru
laukstītwei
52 forest miškas widuwa
forest
meddin
53 stick lazda ponkragazd
lagzdē
54 fruit vaisius pola
fruit
wēisis
55 seed * sėkla semenasemen
sīmen
56 leaf * lapas bolja
warak
lappan
57 root * šaknis urdaraudh
saknis
58 bark * (from tree) žievė kortacorce
lātwei
59 flower gėlė blosa, anda
flor
kwēitis
60 grass žolė gorbagras
zālis
61 rope virvė rezga
seil
wīrbi
62 skin * oda skuta, pelna
cuit
keūtā
63 meat mėsa memsa, krowa
miems
mēnsa
64 blood * kraujas esnasehrg
krāujā
65 bone * kaulas ostjaost
kaūlin
66 fat * (n.) riebalai smorsa
selp, smeru
instran
67 egg * kiaušinis owjekaoiv
pāuts
68 horn * ragas kerna
horn
rags
69 tail * uodega doklaswayp
stags
70 feather * plunksna petra
ptor
plāugzda
71 hair * plaukai pila
kays
skebbelis
72 head * galva
cap
galwā
73 ear * ausis ausaaur
āuss
74 eye * akis okwjaok
aks
75 nose * nosis nosanas
nāsī
76 mouth * burna osa
stohm
āustā
77 tooth * dantis dontadent
dānts
78 tongue * liežuvis dingwadingv
inzuws
79 fingernail nagas noglaonkh
naguttis
80 foot * pėda podaped
pīda
81 leg koja krusa
jamb
nagē
82 knee * kelis gonwa
genu
klupstis
83 hand * ranka gersahand
rānkā
84 wing sparnas petsna
pterg
skreīlis
85 belly * pilvas belgagventer
wīders
86 guts viduriai entai
inster
grābs
87 neck * kaklas monja
coll
winzus
88 back nugara krugaregv
rīkisna
89 breast * krūtis brusa
pizdan
kreklin
90 heart * širdis kerdakerd
sīran, sīr
91 liver * kepenys
jeknalyekwrnt
jaknā
92 drink * gerti pojit
poh
pūtun
93 eat * valgyti edit
edd
īstun
94 bite * kąsti dankitdehnk
kanstun
95 suck čiulpti delit
seug
dītun
96 spit spjauti spujit
spieu
wemtwei
97 vomit vemti wemit
vomeih
spjāuwan
98 blow pūsti blajit
blah
aupūstan
99 breathe kvėpuoti anit
annem
dwestwei
100 laugh juoktis wriditgleih
smeītun si
101 see * matyti widitvid
wīdātun
102 hear * girdėti klujit
aur
kirdītun
103 know * (a fact) žinoti gignitwoid
waīstun
104 think galvoti mentitmehn
mīritwei
105 smell uosti odmam anit
neus
ōstun
106 fear bijoti bimit
bay
bijjā (only has noun)
107 sleep * miegoti swopitswehp
migītwei
108 live gyventi gwiwitgwiv
gīwītwei
109 die * mirti morit
mehr, daunet, nehc
aulaūtwei
110 kill * žudyti moraagit
xehn, neic
galīntun
111 fight kovoti judit
katue, weigh
ūlintwei
112 hunt medžioti woitam kurit
sayd, gverue, agrue
medāni (noun)
113 hit smogti slakit, butit
heih, plag, stuned
kīrstun
114 cut pjauti, kirpti
skijit
(oi)(s)kehrz, seg
pjaūtun
115 split skelti skidit
scinesd, finesd
spīltun
116 stab durti pugitdyehgw
none, but pierce - praīmtun
117 scratch drėksti, brėžti
drnitgraz
glāubtun
118 dig kasti, rausti
grobit
food, grabh, (oi)(s)kav
kaptun
119 swim * plaukti snajitsnah
plūtwei
120 fly * (v.) skristi petitpleuk
skrāistwei
121 walk * eiti wadit
ghang
ēitwei
122 come * ateiti gumitgwehm
perēitwei
123 lie * gulti, gulėti
drugitlyehg
lanzītwei
124 sit * sėsti, sėdėti
sedit
sedd
sīndītwei, sīstwei
125 stand * stoti, stovėti
stanitstah
stalītwei
126 turn apsisukti kulitwehrt
wartīntun
127 fall kristi kidit, rujit
fall
krūtwei
128 give * duoti danit
dah
dātun
129 hold laikyti deritdehrj
laikātun
130 squeeze spausti, gręžti
uskitsehr
ebglabtun
131 rub trinti terit
ghneih, tyehr
draztun
132 wash plauti, skalbti
nigwitlav
mūtun
133 wipe šluoti tergittierg

134 pull traukti dukit
trag
wīlktun
135 push stumti tudit
pusc
tālkātun
136 throw mesti jejit
xeubh
mestun
137 tie rišti nedit
behnd
ristun
138 sew siūti sjuwitsyuh
šūtun
139 count skaičiuoti rimit
lehg, conte
gīrbautun
140 say * sakyti ukwitsayg
gērdautun
141 sing dainuoti kanitsehngv
gremtun
142 play žaisti ludit
leik
spīlitun
143 float plūduriuoti pluwit
flotte
langītwei
144 flow tekėti srowitsreu
tektwei
145 freeze šalti prusitfrehs
pasallintun
146 swell tinti tumit
teum
belztwei
147 sun * saulė solnasol
saūli
148 moon * mėnulis menesameun
mīniks
149 star * žvaigždė sterastar
lāuksnā
150 water * vanduo udrawed
undan
151 rain * lietus suvaseuy
sūji
152 river upė srowasreumen
appi
153 lake ežeras egera, moritsa
lac
azzaran
154 sea jūra morja
mar
jūris
155 salt druska salnasald
sāls
156 stone * akmuo kagla
petra
stabs
157 sand * smėlis molmasand
zigzdā
158 dust dulkės molmitsaduil
pūslē
159 earth * žemė degmena
ardh, (di)ghom
zemē
160 cloud * debesis nebesanebh
uppin
161 fog rūkas migla
nebule
none, but misty = kupsīniskas
162 sky dangus djuwa
waurn
dāngs
163 wind vėjas veja
wind
wītra
164 snow sniegas snigwasneigv
snāigs
165 ice ledas pruswa
glehdj
lads
166 smoke * dūmai dumadum
dūms
167 fire * ugnis ognja
ogwn, piurn
pannu, ugnis
168 ashes * pelenai degura
bur, ascha, kenis
pelanni
169 burn * degti indit
aydh
deggintun
170 road * kelias sodastrad
grīnsli (roadway)
171 mountain * kalnas kolnaghyor(a)
gārbs
172 red * raudonas redreirudh
wūrmis
173 green * žalias gelnei
glend
zallis
174 yellow * geltonas glorei
gehlb
geltaīns
175 white * baltas albeialbh (kweit)
gaīls
176 black * juodas surdeisword
kīrsnas
177 night * naktis noktanoct
nakts
178 day diena dinadien
dēinā
179 year metai wetsa
yar
mettan
180 warm * šiltas gurmeiwarm
tappis
181 cold * šaltas geleisrig
saltan
182 full * pilnas polneiplen
pilns
183 new * naujas neweinov
naws
184 old senas senekei
veut
wūrs
185 good * geras mirei, su-
sell, gohd, dohbro
labs
186 bad blogas dusei
khiter, khak, (s)mal
wārgs
187 rotten supuvęs puteisaup
rot (noun) - trustis
188 dirty nešvarus, purvinas
moweimurdar
mīlins
189 straight tiesiai ordwei
seid
tìkriskas
190 round * apskritas lobei, kurwei
rund
skrits
191 sharp aštrus skirei, tigei
ak
astars, aīkuls
192 dull bukas duntei
stump
preiilgewingis
193 smooth glotnus glodei
glat, sliv
līgus
194 wet drėgnas mudei, medrei
smeu
mārks, wilgs
195 dry * sausas sousei
siuk
sāuss
196 correct teisingas rektei
prabh, correct
tikkars
197 near arti, šalia
adei, u, ulegontei
prokwem
taūws
198 far toli postanontei, wiitei
dalg
tāls
199 right dešinė deksneidexter
tikrōms
200 left kairė laiweilevter
kāirs
201 at į u + locative
ad
prēi
202 in į
en
in
ēn
203 with su sun, -kom + instrumental
con

204 and ir i, kwe
ed
be, aīnat
205 if jei sit
sei, an, kwe(ter)
ik, ikkai
206 because nes, kadangi
eruob
beggi, paggan
207 name * vardas nomenanam
emmens

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