On Latin verbs in Occidental (part 2) / pri li verbe in latin in Occidental (parte 2)

Tuesday, January 06, 2009

Here's the second part of the chapter on verbs from here translated from English into Occidental. It seems to me that a detailed textbook on Latin written in Occidental could concentrate on the following areas:

  • First on how Latin words correspond to those in Occidental (teaching the students how to derive terms in one language from another)
  • Then concentrate on the most frequent words that don't exist in Occidental, like vix, etiam, ludus, etc.
  • After that almost all vocabulary in the nominative should be quite easy to learn, so the next step is to concentrate on cases and syntax, which would probably become the focus of the rest of the book. Introduce one case, show a ton of examples in a written piece, introduce another case, show another ton of examples through another written piece, and continue in that fashion. By then the students should be able to read some pretty interesting pieces in simple Latin on mythology, Roman history, etc.

Usar li dictionarium

Omni substantives es dat in li nominativ, con li declination e génere del substantive. Verbes es alfabetisat con li unesim person singulari, e anc li infinitive es dat. Suplementari principal partes es dat si li altri principal partes ne seque li normal modelle de formation del infinitive e unesim person singulari.


Li present ínperfect es li max simplic témpore. Por formar li present ínperfect on deve solmen metter li finales personal al fine del radice del verbe.

Dunc, si on have li radice 'ama' (identic a 'ama' in Occidental), on posse changear it a 'yo ama' con un ō al fine.
Yo ama  =  amō (amaō*)
Noi ama = amāmus
  • Latin perdi li 'a' in amaō in li formation de amō.

In latin on posse adjuntar pronómines personal, ma solmen por adjuntar emfase e in conjuntion con li respectiv finale personal al verbe. Altrimen li frase deveni nonsense. Por exemple:

ego amō = Yo (ne tu) ama

nōs amāmus = Noi (ne vu) ama

ma to es por emfase special.

Vi li formes del verbe 'porta' (portar in Occidental) in li present ínperfect témpore:

portō     yo porta                    unesim person singulari
portās tu porta duesim person singulari
portat il, ella, it porta triesim person singulari
portāmus noi porta unesim person plural
portātis vu porta duesim person plural
portant ili porta triesim person plural

Porta e ama es verbes del 1im conjugation; to es, verbes con un radice quel fini in 'a'.

Existe tri altri conjugationes, e in infra es alcun exemples de verbes del quar conjugationes (present ínperfect témpore):

porta, portar (1im Conj) mone, advertir (2im Conj) rege, reyer (3im Conj.) audī, audir (4im Conj)
portō, yo porta
moneō, yo adverti
regō, yo reye
audiō, yo audi
portās, tu porta
monēs, tu adverti
regis, tu reye
audis, tu audi
portat, il/ella/it porta
monet, il/ella/it adverti
regit, il/ella/it reye
audit, il/ella/it audi
portāmus, noi porta
monēmus, noi adverti
regimus, noi reye
audimus, noi audi
portātis, vu porta
monētis, vu adverti
regitis, vu reye
auditis, vu audi
portant, ili porta
monent, ili adverti
regunt, ili reye
audiunt, ili audi

Chascun verbe usa li sam líttere(s) final por indicar li 'subjecte' - yo, tu, il/ella/it, noi, vu, ili.

Ante ti lítteres final, li unesim conjugation ha un 'a' (támen quande un 'o' es posit, li 'a' sovente desapari) , li duesim un 'e', e usualmen li triesim e quaresim ha un 'i'. Li plural del triesim person format in li conjugationes triesim e quaresim ha un 'u'. Ti formes de verbes deve esser aprendet ye memorie.

Li max comun verbe (esser) es ínregulari. Ci es un tabelle del verbe 'esser' in latin, anglesi, francesi, hispan e italian.
latin anglesi francesi hispan italianOccidental
sum I am je suis yo soy sonoes
es thou art tu es tú eres seies
est he/she/it is il/elle est él/ella es èes
sumus we are nous sommes nosotros/-as somos siamoes
estis ye are vous êtes vosotros/-as sois sietees
sunt they are ils/elles sont ellos/-as son sonoes

Li finales personal es identic con li quar conjugationes regulari.

Li imperativ

Li mode imperativ es un órdine, format simplicmen per usar li radice del verbe. Si li órdine es a un grand gruppe de persones, o si on vole dar respecte, on usa li sufixe -te.

amō eum = Yo ama il.

amā eum = Ama il!

amāte eum = Ama (vu) il!

currō casam = Yo curre al hem.

currā casam = Curre al hem!

currāte casam = Curre (vu) al hem!

Regō prudente = Yo reye prudentmen.

Regi prudente = Reye prudentmen!

Regite prudente = Reye (vu) prudentmen!


Anonymous said...

Cave care Dave!
Be careful!!!
I've seen that the latin lesson you use contains errors!
I had already pointed out the fact that the verb ought to be at the end of the sentence (though it is not a grammatical error).
But: This article uses words which do not exist in good Latin:
"portare" instead of "ferre" (irregular)
"casa" instead of your "domus".
(In Latin, they might understand it as "cabin" or something like that). It is like using "caballus" instead of "equus", as "caballus" meant "bad horse", or "testa" instead of "caput", which meant "jar, skull"!
I am sure that the imperative of the verbs "currere" and " regere" was not in a "a", (and moreover in a stress "a"!)It was

I really think you should use a more serious primer than those wiki-lesson that were reviewed by no-one.

Olivarius Sigmundus Lotharingus (aka Olivier Simon)

데이빛 / Mithridates said...

Hm, well then I suppose there's no point in continuing them then. It was mostly just as an example of how a textbook in Occidental for another language would look, so certainly not crucial.

And besides, I've started something new that you'll see in a few hours. You'll probably like it.

(has nothing to do with Latin but is in Occidental)

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