On Latin adjectives in Occidental / pri li adjective in latin in Occidental

Saturday, January 03, 2009

Here's another page from the Latin course on Wikibooks that I've translated into Occidental. Compared to something like Sherlock Holmes a bit of explanation about grammar is a walk in the park. Since some people are of the opinion that IALs should concentrate more on practical knowledge (textbooks, manuals, etc.) than literature, maybe a focus on this type of writing would be beneficial. Language textbooks are probably better than something like software, because languages take forever to go out of date whereas software has a shelf life of generally only a few years.

Introduction a adjectives

Un adjective es simplemen un parol quel descri un substantive, quam un objecte o subjecte in un frase. Naturalmen, tot frases posse esser usat por descrir un substantive, ma adjectives es paroles individual. Por exemple, in Occidental:

Li rubi can ataccat li frenesi fox.

Un adjective posse esser usat in un frase vis-a-vis un forme de esser.

Li púer es bon.

Latin anc functiona talmen.

Adjectives in Latin

Quam substantives, adjectives in Latin have un declination. Li max mult de ili prende li unesim e duesim declination (antiquus -a -um) o li triesim declination (ferox, ferocis). Tot tal adjectives deve concordar con li substantives queles ili descri in génere, númere, e casu.

Max mult adjectives del triesim declination ne have formes separat por masculin e feminin. (Neutri adjectives seque li triesim neutri declination.)

Adjectives del unesim e duesim declination have tri géneres distint. Adjectives feminin besona li unesim declination, masculin li duesim (masculin modele), e neutri li duesim (neutri modele).

Ti paroles va aparer quam li adjective antiquus (old, antiqui):

antiquus (masculin), antiqua (feminin), antiquum (neutri).

Adjectives del triesim declination tipicmen apare plu quam ferox, ferocis (feroci/savagi).

Quam in Occidental, adjectives sovente veni pos li parol quam ili descri. (Ma pro que parol-órdine ne es central al signification de un frase latin, li adjective posse aparir alcú in un frase. Por exemple, in poesie, sovente on trova que pluri paroles separa un adjective del substantive quel it modifica.)

Por exemple:
Explication- Li púer bon ama li can savagi.
Latin: puer bonus amat(1) canem(2) (acc) ferocem(3) (acc).
Occidental: [Li] púer bon [il] ama [li] can savagi.
  • (1) amare, amar. amat, [il] ama.
  • (2) canis, can (masc.)
  • (3) ferox, ferocis, savagi/feroci. ferocem (acc.)

Bonus, un adjective del unesim e duesim declination, es masculin, nominativ, a singulari por concordar con puer, li parol quel it descri.

Ferocem, un adjective del triesim declination, es masculin, accusativ, a singulari por concordar con canem. Canem es accusative pro que it es li objecte de amat.

Vi un exemple de adjectives plural:

Explanation- Li púeres bon ama li canes savagi.
Latin: Pueri (plur) boni (plur) amant (plur) canes (plur, acc) feroces (plur, acc).
Occidental: [Li] púeres bon [ili] ama [li] canes savagi.

Li paroles bonus e ferocem deveni boni e feroces por concordar con li plural pueri e canes.

Támen, si un puella vell amar ti púer:

Explication- Li puella bon ama li púer bon.
Latin: Puella bona amat puerum (acc) bonum (acc).
Occidental: [Li] puella bon [ella] ama [li] púer bon.

Bonus deve devenir bona por modificar puella, quel es feminin.

Finalmen, si li puella ne es bon, ma savagi:

Explication- Li puella savagi ama li púer bon.
Latin: Puella ferox amat puerum (acc) bonum (acc).
Occidental: [Li] puella wild [ella] ama [li] púer bon.

Benque puella es in li unesim declination, ferox remane li triesim. Identicmen, un bon leon vell esser bonus leo.

Adjectives deve concordar in génere, númere, e casu, ma ne necessimen in declination.


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