Gospel of Luke in Anglo-Saxon (and Wycliffe + Modern Indo-European for comparison)

Friday, June 20, 2008

The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:       Old West Norse dialect        Old East Norse dialect        Old Gutnish dialect        Crimean Gothic        Old English        Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility

I'd never been able to find a complete book of the Bible in Anglo-Saxon before (though admittedly I wasn't looking all that hard), but came across a page today with the complete Gospel of Luke in Anglo-Saxon. Well, almost complete. The owner of the page writes:
The text of Luke has not been edited by me and contains a fair stretch of text inserted in modern English in the genealogy in chapter 3. I assume that this is missing in the manuscripts—which would be understandable, since an Anglo-Saxon audience would hardly be interested in the intricacies of a distant Jewish genealogy. I have not been in a position to check this in the printed editions. I therefore present this text “as is”, warts and all. One day I do hope to be able to properly clean up these files, that is, all four gospels.
Probably a good move, removing the genealogy.

Since this is Luke we'll be able to compare it to the Modern Indo-European version as well, since they've translated the Parable of the Prodigal Son into the language here. King James is on the left, then Wycliffe, then the Anglo-Saxon version, then reconstructed Proto-Indo-European (aka Modern Indo-European or MIE).

King James
Wycliffe's Bible
Anglo-SaxonModern Indo-European
And He said, "A man had two sons. And he seide, A man hadde twei sones;He cwæð: soðlice sum man hæfde twegen suna. Dhghomōn enis
sūnuwe eiket.
And the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living. and the yonger of hem seide to the fadir, Fadir, yyue me the porcioun of catel, that fallith to me. And he departide to hem the catel.þa cwæð se yldra to his fæder; Fæder. syle me minne dæl minre æhte þe me to gebyreð: þa dælde he him his æhte; Joqe jowísteros
patrei wewqét :
Pater, rijós dasdhi-
moi aitim qāi meghei
áineti, joqe rēim
ibhom widhét.
And not many days after the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living.And not aftir many daies, whanne alle thingis weren gederid togider, the yonger sone wente forth in pilgrymage in to a fer cuntre; and there he wastide hise goodis in lyuynge lecherously.þa æfter feawa dagum ealle his þing gegaderude se gingra sunu: and ferde wræclice on feorlen rice. and forspilde þar his æhta lybbende on his gælsan; Enim nē péluwāms
djnāms pos, solwa
garlós, jowísteros
sūnús rew
porsótenom oigheto
londhom, idhei-qe
rēim nudét sewe
ghlóidotos cejwents.
And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land; and he began to be in want.And aftir that he hadde endid alle thingis, a strong hungre was maad in that cuntre, and he bigan to haue nede.þa he hig hæfde ealle amyrrede þa wearð mycel hunger on þam rice and he wearð wædla; Enim ítāpo solwa
cósissēt kom,
dhṛghtós molét
ghrēdhus londhei
ólnosmei, joqe
egētum sepe bhwije.
And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine.And he wente, and drouy hym to oon of the citeseyns of that cuntre. And he sente hym in to his toun, to fede swyn.þa ferde he and folgude anum burhsittendan men þæs rices ða sende he hine to his tune þæt he heolde his swyn; Itaqe cālós, qismei
jugeto kéiwijom
ólnosio lóndhī, im-qe
sontaiet porkoms
And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him.And he coueitide to fille his wombe of the coddis that the hoggis eeten, and no man yaf hym.þa gewilnode he his wambe gefyllan of þam biencoddun þe ða swyn æton. and him man ne sealde; Atqe úderom
skaliqāis plḗnātum
gheríjeto porkos
edent-jams atqe
neqis ismei dōt.
And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger!And he turnede ayen to hym silf, and seide, Hou many hirid men in my fadir hous han plente of looues; and Y perische here thorouy hungir.þa beþohte he hine and cwæð; Eala hu fela yrðlinga on mines fæder huse hlaf genohne habbað and ic her on hungre forwurðe; Swei poti wṛtomnós,
ōge: qotioi patrós
domei mísdhotes
pasknis spréigonti,
kei egō aw dhami
I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee,Y schal rise vp, and go to my fadir, and Y schal seie to hym, Fadir, Y haue synned in to heuene, and bifor thee;Ic arise and ic fare to minum fæder. and ic secge him; Eala fæder ic syngode on heofenas. and beforan þe: arísomnos patérm
eisō mene ad, joqe
ismei seksō : Pater,
kémelom proti
tewom-qe antí
And am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants.and now Y am not worthi to be clepid thi sone, make me as oon of thin hirid men.nu ic neom wyrðe þæt ic beo þin sunu nemned. do me swa anne of þinum yrðlingum; jāmi nē deknos egō,
sūnús téwijos
kluwētum: dhasdhi-
me swāi qimqim
mísdhotom tewe.
And he arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him.And he roos vp, and cam to his fadir. And whanne he was yit afer, his fadir saiy hym, and was stirrid bi mercy. And he ran, and fel on his necke, and kisside hym.And he aras þa 'and' com to his fæder. and þa gyt þa he wæs feorr his fæder he hyne geseah and wearð mid mildheortnesse astyrod and agen hine arn and hine beclypte and cyste hine; Ita aritós paterṃ
ludhét sewe. Eti jom
qeli bhūlo, em patēr
tósiope dṛket, joqe
ana kṛsents
kómqēilio krawtós
esti enim qolsom
petlós em bhusāiét.
And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son.And the sone seide to hym, Fadir, Y haue synned in to heuene, and bifor thee; and now Y am not worthi to be clepid thi sone.þa cwæð his sunu; Fæder. ic syngude on heofon: and beforan ðe. nu ic ne eom wyrþe þæt ic þin sunu beo genemned; Wedét óisosmoi
sūnús: Páter,
kémelom proti
tewom-qe anti
memlai: jāmi nē
deknos egō, sūnús
téwijos nōmnādhiom
But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:And the fadir seide to hise seruauntis, Swithe brynge ye forth the firste stoole, and clothe ye hym, and yyue ye a ryng in his hoond,þa cwæð se fæder to his þeowum; Bringað raðe þæne selestan gegyrelan and scrydað hyne and syllað him hring on his hand: and gescy to his fotum. nū mísdhatbhos
bhato patēr sewe;
bhersi: prismām
dhrághete togām
joqe tom westíjete,
anom tosio ghéseni
kerpioms-qe esio
daste pedsí:
And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry:and schoon on hise feet; and brynge ye a fat calf, and sle ye, and ete we, and make we feeste.and bringað an fætt styric and ofsleað and utun etan and gewistfullian: kom piwonṃ-qe
bhérete loigom joqe
chénete, joqe
edāmos, joqe wḷdām
For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.For this my sone was deed, and hath lyued ayen; he perischid, and is foundun. And alle men bigunnen to ete.forþam þes min sunu wæs dead and he geedcucude: he forwearð and he is gemet; þa ongunnon hig gewistlæcan jodqid kei sūnús
mene dhedhuwós ēst
atqe coje ati:
skombnós ēst, atqe
warētai. Enim wḷdām
Now his elder son was in the field: and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard musick and dancing.But his eldere sone was in the feeld; and whanne he cam, and neiyede to the hous, he herde a symfonye and a croude.Soðlice hys yldra sunu wæs on æcere and he com. and þa he þam huse genealæhte he gehyrde þæne sweg and þæt weryd. Agrei aw senísteros
ēst sūnús: joqe jom
cēmsēt enim domom
nedisēt, kómkantum
leigṃ-qe kluwét.
And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant.And he clepide oon of the seruauntis, and axide, what these thingis weren.þa clypode he anne þeow and axode hine hwæt þæt wære; Joqe neqom
móghuwom ghawlós
pṛket qid ghai-ke
And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and sound.And he seide to hym, Thi brother is comun, and thi fadir slewe a fat calf, for he resseyuede hym saaf.þa cwæð he þin broðor com. and þin fæder of sloh an fæt celf forþam þe he hyne halne onfeng; Isqe sqet: bhrāter
tewe cēme enim
piwonṃ patēr-two
chone loigom, jodqid
tom cīwóm solwom
And he was angry, and would not go in: therefore came his father out, and intreated him.And he was wrooth, and wolde not come in. Therfor his fadir wente out, and bigan to preye hym.þa bealh he hine and nolde ingan; þa eode his fæder ut and ongan hine biddan; kṛditós awtim esti,
joqe nē en eitum
welwāt. Ar patēr ejos
eksodlós, bhwijét im
And he answering said to his father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy commandment: and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends:And he answerde to his fadir, and seide, Lo! so many yeeris Y serue thee, and Y neuer brak thi comaundement; and thou neuer yaf to me a kidde, that Y with my freendis schulde haue ete.þa cwæþ he his fæder andswarigende; Efne swa fela geara ic þe þeowude and ic næfre þin bebod ne forgymde. and ne sealdest þu me næfre an ticcen þæt ic mid minum freondum gewistfullude; Atqe se
protiweqents, patrei
bhato sewe: edke
totioms atnoms
sístāmi twei upo,
joqe neqom dikām
tewe kleusō dus, atqe
neqom meghei
ghaidom desta wḷdai
amikis senutéuijai.
But as soon as this thy son was come, which hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf.But aftir that this thi sone, that hath deuourid his substaunce with horis, cam, thou hast slayn to hym a fat calf.Ac syððan þes þin sunu com. þe hys spede mid myltystrum amyrde: þu ofsloge him fætt celf; Mō ita tom sūnús
tewe kei, rēim
loutsāis cṛālós cēme,
ólnosmoi péiwonṃ
loigom chonta.
And he said unto him, Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine.And he seide to hym, Sone, thou art euer more with me, and alle my thingis ben thine.þa cwæþ he sunu: þu eart symle mid me: and ealle mine þing synt þine Atqe oise tosmoi
wewqét: suneu, tū
áiwesi mojo essi,
enim solwa menia
téwija senti.
It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.But it bihofte for to make feeste, and to haue ioye; for this thi brother was deed, and lyuede ayen; he perischide, and is foundun.þe gebyrede gewistfullian and geblissian forþam þes þin broðor wæs dead and he geedcucede he forwearð and he is gemet:--
Wḷdam awtim
terptum, joqe
gaudhētum opos ēst,
jodqid bhrāter tewe
kei dhedhuwós ēst
atqe coje ati:
skombnós ēst, atqe


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