Swadesh list comparing English, French, Lithuanian and Sambahsa

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

While Dnghu has not had an update since January, the pan-Indo-European auxlangs Sambahsa and Uropi have released a fair amount of content recently. Finding cognates among large European languages is fairly easy to do, but another point of interest is whether their vocabulary bears more similarity to modern Lithuanian than your average Western European-based auxlang. For that I asked Olivier to send me the Sambahsa vocabulary for a Swadesh list, the well-known list of 207 common words used to make a rough comparison between languages. The list has English, French, Lithuanian and Sambahsa, and the words that are obvious cognates between Lithuanian and Sambahsa that the other two do not share are in bold. Olivier's notes on vocabulary from the email he sent me are below the chart. In the next week or two I might try an English/French/Lithuanian Uropi or Modern Indo-European Swadesh list.


No English French Lithuanian Sambahsa
1 I je ego, io
2 you, thou
vous, tu
Jūs, tu
yu, tu
3 he il jis is
4 we nous mes wey
5 you (pl.)
vous Jūs yu
6 they ils, elles
jie, jos
ies, ias, ia, i
7 this ceci šis so, sa, tod
8 that cela tas, anas
cis, cia, cid
9 here ici čia her
10 there ten ter
11 who qui kas qui(s), qua, quel
12 what quoi kas quod
13 where kur quer
14 when quand kada quan(do)
15 how comment kaip kam, quosmed
16 not ne...pas ne ...
ne
17 all tout viskas, visi
vasyo, hol, quant
18 many plusieurs daug maung
19 some quelques kažkiek sem
20 few peu keletas pau(k)
21 other autre kitas alyo, alter
22 one un vienas oin
23 two deux du dwo
24 three trois trys tri
25 four quatre keturi quar
26 five cinq penki penk(we)
27 big * grand didelis mier
28 long * long ilgas long
29 wide large platus weur
30 thick épais storas, tankus, tirštas
teug
31 heavy lourd sunkus gwaur
32 small * petit mažas smulk
33 short court trumpas cort
34 narrow étroit siauras angh
35 thin mince plonas teun
36 woman * femme moteris gwen(a)
37 man (adult male) homme vyras wir
38 man * (human being) homme žmogus mensc
39 kid enfant vaikas magv
40 wife femme, épouse žmona gvibh, esor
41 husband mari, époux vyras mann
42 mother mère motina mater
43 father père tėvas pater
44 animal animal gyvulys animal
45 fish * poisson žuvis pisk
46 bird * oiseau paukštis av
47 hound * chien šuo kwaun
48 louse * pou utėlė lus
49 snake serpent gyvatė serpent
50 worm ver kirminas vehrm
51 beam * arbre medis dru
52 forest forêt miškas forest, ghiri = mountain forest
53 stick bâton lazda gazd
54 fruit fruit vaisius fruit
55 seed * graine sėkla semen
56 leaf * feuille lapas warak
57 root * racine šaknis raudh
58 bark * (from tree) écorce žievė corce
59 flower fleur gėlė flor
60 grass herbe žolė gras
61 rope corde virvė seil
62 skin * peau oda cuit
63 meat viande mėsa miems
64 blood * sang kraujas sehrg
65 bone * os kaulas ost
66 fat * (n.) graisse riebalai selp, smeru
67 egg * œuf kiaušinis oiv
68 horn * corne ragas horn
69 tail * queue uodega swayp
70 feather * plume plunksna ptor
71 hair * cheveu plaukai kays
72 head * tête galva cap
73 ear * oreille ausis aur
74 eye * œil akis ok
75 nose * nez nosis nas
76 mouth * bouche burna stohm
77 tooth * dent dantis dent
78 tongue * langue liežuvis dingv
79 fingernail ongle nagas onkh
80 foot * pied pėda ped
81 leg jambe koja jamb
82 knee * genou kelis genu
83 hand * main ranka hand
84 wing aile sparnas pterg
85 belly * ventre pilvas gventer
86 guts entrailles viduriai inster
87 neck * cou kaklas coll
88 back dos nugara regv
89 breast * sein, poitrine krūtis pizdan (of female)
90 heart * cœur širdis kerd
91 liver * foie kepenys
lyekwrnt
92 drink * boire gerti poh
93 eat * manger valgyti edd
94 bite * mordre kąsti dehnk
95 suck sucer čiulpti seug
96 spit cracher spjauti spieu
97 vomit vomir vemti vomeih
98 blow souffler pūsti blah
99 breathe respirer kvėpuoti annem
100 laugh rire juoktis gleih
101 see * voir matyti vid
102 hear * entendre girdėti aur
103 know * (a fact) savoir žinoti woid
104 think penser galvoti mehn
105 smell sentir uosti neus
106 fear craindre, avoir peur bijoti bay
107 sleep * dormir miegoti swehp
108 live vivre gyventi gwiv
109 die * mourir mirti mehr, daunet, nehc
110 kill * tuer žudyti xehn, neic
111 fight se battre kovoti katue, weigh
112 hunt chasser medžioti sayd, gverue, agrue
113 hit frapper smogti heih, plag, stuned
114 cut couper pjauti, kirpti
(oi)(s)kehrz, seg
115 split fendre skelti scinesd, finesd
116 stab poignarder durti dyehgw
117 scratch gratter drėksti, brėžti
graz
118 dig creuser kasti, rausti
food, grabh, (oi)(s)kav
119 swim * nager plaukti snah
120 fly * (v.) voler skristi pleuk
121 walk * marcher eiti ghang
122 come * venir ateiti gwehm
123 lie * s'étendre gulti, gulėti
lyehg
124 sit * s'asseoir sėsti, sėdėti
sedd
125 stand * se lever stoti, stovėti
stah
126 turn tourner apsisukti wehrt
127 fall tomber kristi fall
128 give * donner duoti dah
129 hold tenir laikyti dehrj
130 squeeze serrer spausti, gręžti
sehr
131 rub frotter trinti ghneih, tyehr
132 wash laver plauti, skalbti
lav
133 wipe essuyer šluoti tierg
134 pull tirer traukti trag
135 push pousser stumti pusc
136 throw jeter mesti xeubh
137 tie lier rišti behnd
138 sew coudre siūti syuh
139 count compter skaičiuoti lehg, conte
140 say * dire sakyti sayg
141 sing chanter dainuoti sehngv
142 play jouer žaisti leik
143 float flotter plūduriuoti flotte
144 flow couler tekėti sreu
145 freeze geler šalti frehs
146 swell gonfler tinti teum
147 sun * soleil saulė sol
148 moon * lune mėnulis meun
149 star * étoile žvaigždė star
150 water * eau vanduo wed
151 rain * pluie lietus seuy
152 river rivière upė sreumen
153 lake lac ežeras lac
154 sea mer jūra mar
155 salt sel druska sald
156 stone * pierre akmuo petra
157 sand * sable smėlis sand
158 dust poussière dulkės duil
159 earth * terre žemė ardh, (di)ghom
160 cloud * nuage debesis nebh
161 fog brouillard rūkas nebule
162 sky ciel dangus waurn
163 wind vent vėjas wind
164 snow neige sniegas sneigv
165 ice glace ledas glehdj
166 smoke * fumée dūmai dum
167 fire * feu ugnis ogwn, piurn
168 ashes * cendres pelenai bur, ascha, kenis
169 burn * brûler degti aydh
170 road * route kelias strad
171 mountain * montagne kalnas ghyor(a)
172 red * rouge raudonas rudh
173 green * vert žalias glend
174 yellow * jaune geltonas gehlb
175 white * blanc baltas albh (kweit)
176 black * noir juodas sword
177 night * nuit naktis noct
178 day jour diena dien
179 year an, année metai yar
180 warm * chaud šiltas warm
181 cold * froid šaltas srig
182 full * plein pilnas plen
183 new * nouveau naujas nov
184 old vieux senas veut
185 good * bon geras sell, gohd, dohbro
186 bad mauvais blogas khiter, khak, (s)mal
187 rotten pourri supuvęs saup
188 dirty sale nešvarus, purvinas
murdar
189 straight droit tiesiai seid
190 round * rond apskritas rund
191 sharp tranchant, pointu, aigu aštrus ak
192 dull émoussé bukas stump
193 smooth lisse glotnus glat, sliv
194 wet mouillé drėgnas smeu
195 dry * sec sausas siuk
196 correct juste, correct teisingas prabh, correct
197 near proche arti, šalia
prokwem
198 far loin toli dalg
199 right à droite dešinė dexter
200 left à gauche kairė levter
201 at à į ad
202 in dans į
in
203 with avec su con
204 and et ir ed
205 if si jei sei, an, kwe(ter)
206 because parce que nes, kadangi
ob
207 name * nom vardas nam




Comments on Sambahsa vocabulary:



Eng : Sambahsa : Comments (otherwise consider it's of IE origin)

I : ego :
thou : tu
he : is
we : wey
you : yu
they : ies/ias/ia/i
this : so/sa/tod
that : cis/cia/cid : Ad-Ma have *k^is; we can assume this is the origin of "cis" and c°
here : her : Germanic
there : ter : IE ! *tor
who : qui(s)/qua/quel
what : quod
where : quer : IE ! *kwor (others have even *kwer)
when : quan(do) : the book has *kwodeh, but, given Latin and Germanic, we can assume it is IE
how : kam, quosmed : "quosmed" is inspired from IE, but *kwosmod was ablative. *kwe/om is attested only in Latin and Armenian. So, it is nevertheless IE...
not : ne
all : vasyo/hol/quant : Ad-Ma list a vague *wik^; but "vasyo is inspired from Sanskrit and Slavic, "hol" from Greek and English, "quant" from Greek "pant-" and Spanish "cuanto". So this is "new" IE.
many : maung : Ad-Ma list *pelu- (which exists in Sambahsa too), but there is Slavic "mnogo", German "manch".... So it's IE regionally, like many others above.
some : sem
few : pau(k)
other : alyo/alter
one : oin
two : dwo
three : tri
four : quar
five : penk(we)
big : mier : Here, I find Celtic: Breton "meur", Irish "mòr" etc... Romanian "mare" seems unrelated
long : long : (more exactly, western IE)
wide : weur
thick : teug
heavy : gwaur
small : smulk : Baltic (Lith. smulkus; Germanic is unrelated in truth)
short : cort : Modern European (both Romance and Germanic)
narrow : angh
thin : teun
woman : gwen(a)
man : wir
man : mensc
kid : magv : IE *maghus = young (servant); cf English "maid"
wife : gvibh, esor
husband : mann
mother : mater
father : pater
animal : animal : Latin of course
fish : pisk : (western IE; most books list *idhghu, for me, and Sambahsa, "igdu" means " a catch" from "yagh" = "to fetch food"...)
bird : av
hound : kwaun
louse : lus
snake : serpent : indeed many species names in IE, but sarpa exists in Sanskrit, like Romance "serpent", from the root *serp = to wind
worm : vehrm
beam (?; "tree" is better) : dru
forest : forest : low Latin "forestris" = "of outside"; Ad-Ma list *gworH, but Sambahsa has "ghiri" = "mountain forest"; cf. Sanskrit *giri and Lithuanian "giris", and they list *widu, I added recently to my on-line dic as "timberland", "woody"
stick : gazd
fruit : fruit : French...
seed : semen
leaf : warak : Arabic
root : raudh
bark : corce : Romance; Ad-Ma list *loubheH; Sambahsa has *lubher = Latin "liber" (which meant later "book")
flower : flor : Romance, Latin.
grass : gras : of course Germanic, but ultimately from IE *gras = to graze...
rope : seil : Köbler has *seilo
skin : cuit
meat : miems
blood : sehrg
bone : ost
fat : selp, smeru
egg : oiv
horn : horn : Germanic
tail : swayp : I suppose it's Germanic though I had it from some IE based wordlist
feather : ptor
hair : kays
head : cap
ear : aur
eye : ok
nose : nas
mouth : stohm
tooth : dent
tongue : dingv
fingernail : onkh
foot : ped
leg : jamb : French (with a remote Sanskrit root, maybe cognate to English "jump")
knee : genu
hand : hand : Germanic; the IE word "ghesor" is old-fashioned in Sambahsa
wing : pterg
belly : gventer : sure Latin; I can't find the IE connection...
guts : inster (sing.). (cf. Old Icelandic "istra" = "fat wrapping of entrails"; MiddleLow German "inster" : "entrails of a disemboeled animal", Prussian "instran" = "fat", Lith. "isc^ios "womb", Latv. "ies^kas" = "entrails"
neck : coll
back : regv : remotely relative of IE *krewok = "backbone", influenced by German "Rücken" and Latin prefix "re-"
breast (of female) : pizdan
heart : kerd
liver : lyekwrnt
drink : poh
eat : edd
bite : dehnk
suck : seug
spit : spieu
vomit : vomeih
blow : blah
breathe : annem
laugh : gleih
see : vid : (indirectly, through Latin and Slavic, cf. "woid" below)
hear : aur
know (a fact): woid
think : mehn
smell (accusative = odour) : neus : though not found, of course related to word for "nose"
fear : bay
sleep : swehp
live : gwiv
die : mehr/daunet/nehc
kill : xehn/neic
fight : katue/weigh : (north west IE, the land of our sword-wielding ancestors...)
hunt : sayd/gverue/agrue : "sayd" is Arabic, the other ones are attested in IE languages; they surely refer to different kinds of hunt. "gverue" from "gver" = "wild beast", "agrue" from *agros = "plain, field", cf. French "battre la campagne"
hit : heih/plag/stuned.... / the first is a mix of English and Spanish "hito", the others are IE
cut : (oi)(s)kehrz/seg
split : scinesd/finesd : Latin (through ultimately IE)
stab : dyehgw : from its form, it must be IE, though I don't remember where I found it.
scratch : graz : Germanic (though ultimately IE *kars)
dig : food/grabh/(oi)(s)kav... / IE (though "fodd" has a Latin form)
swim : snah
fly : pleuk : "new IE" from pleu + k; pure IE was "pet", but Sambahsa peht is old-fashioned
walk : ghang
come : gwehm
lie : lyehg
sit : sedd
stand : stah
turn : wehrt
fall : fall : Germanic
give : dah
hold : dehrj : IE (though "j" makes it more similar to Slavic)
squeeze : sehr : at least French "serrer"; I can't find back the IE root
rub : ghneih, tyehr
wash : lav
wipe : tierg (surely related to "tyehr" above)
pull : trag : (modelled after Latin; the true IE is *derag I think)
push : pusc : French and a little influenced by Russian "pusk"
throw : xeubh
tie (to bind ?) : behnd
sew : syuh
count : lehg, conte : lehg (to tell) is related to Latin "legere" (read) and Old Greek "legô" = "to tell" (cf: logos = speech); "conte" is of course Romance
say : sayg : Regional : Germanic, Baltic
sing : sehngv
play : leik : Scandinavian
float : flotte : Germanic through French
flow : sreu
freeze : frehs : Germanic (from IE *preus)
swell : teum
sun : sol
moon : meun
star : star
water : wed
rain : seuy
river : sreumen
lake : lac
sea : mar
salt : sald
stone : petra : Latin and Greek
sand : sand : of course Germanic, but Ma-Ad list IE *samdho-
dust : duil
earth: ardh/(di)ghom
cloud : nebh
fog : nebule
sky : waurn : cf . Greek "ouranos", Sanskrit "Varuna-", for me it's IE
wind : wind : like "sand", it's IE through Germanic; IE *wentos
snow : sneigv
ice : glehdj
smoke : dum
fire : ogwn/piurn
ashes : bur/ascha/kenis : the first one is "primeval" according to M.Ruhlen
burn : aydh
road : strad : Latin
mountain : ghyor(a)
red : rudh
green : glend
yellow : gehlb
white : albh (kweit)
black : sword
night : noct
day : dien
yaer : yar
warm : warm
cold : srig
full : plen
new : nov
old : veut
good : sell/gohd/dohbro : undirectly related to some IE roots
bad : khiter/khak/(s)mal : khiter is Slavic (maybe from Iranian), khak is partly Greek, (s)mal is IE
rotten : saup : I could not find the root, but I remember I had found it in a IE database Swadesh list...
dirty : murdar : Turkish through Romanian
straight : seid
round : rund : Romance (Latin "rotundus")
sharp : ak
dull : stump
wet : smeu
dry : siuk
correct : prabh/correct : of course, correct is from Latin
near : prokwem : at least Latin, but there must be an IE connection
far : dalg
right : dexter
left : levter
at : ad
in : in
with : con
and : ed : Italian & Volapük
if : sei/an/kwe(ter) : though not found directly, surely IE
because : ob : Latin, but Russian has "ob" = "about"...
name : nam

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