Grammar of Occidental/Interlingue in Occidental translated into English: part 8

Monday, January 05, 2009


Here's part 8 of the English translation of the Haas grammar on Occidental in Occidental (from here) that I'm doing mostly for my own benefit. Now about two thirds done. There are a few words that I wasn't sure about that are marked with asterisks and a question mark below, so if anybody knows what I should translate them as please let me know below.


CONJUNCTIONESCONJUNCTIONS

§104, Conjunctiones de coordination es:

e, e ... e, o, o ... o, ni, ni ... ni, sive ... sive, ma, nam, tamen, ergo, dunc, plu ... plu, nu, nu ... nu.

E li patre e li matre devenit ciec. O il veni o noi deve cluder li porta. Il certmen ne va manjar ni trincar, nam il ni manja carne, ni trinca alcohol. Sive tu consenti, sive tu ne consenti, noi tamen va far it; ma plu tu obstina te, plu tu va esser isolat. Nu, tu posse far quo tu vole. Il ne plu es normal in li cap, nam nu il ride, nu il plora sin visibil motive.

§104, Coordinative conjunctions are:

e, e ... e, o, o ... o, ni, ni ... ni, sive ... sive, ma, nam, tamen, ergo, dunc, plu ... plu, nu, nu ... nu.

Both the father and the mother became blind. Either he comes or we have to close the door. He certainly will not eat nor drink, because he neither eats meat nor drinks alcohol. Whether you consent or not we will still do it; but the more stubborn you act, the more isolated you will be. Well, you can do what you want. He is no longer normal in the head, because he laughs and then cries with no visible motive.

§ 105. Conjunctiones de subordination es: que, si, quam, esque, ca, quasi, benque, etsí.

On ne posse saver, ca il veni o ne, nam benque il es li marito, il es quasi li sclavo de su marita. Si il veni, on ne deve questionar le pri to, quam si on vell saver nequó. Il ne posse dir in ante, si il posse venir; nam ca il posse venir o ne, to depende de su marita.

§ 105. Subordinate conjunctions are: que, si, quam, esque, ca, quasi, benque, etsí.

One cannot know if he comes or not, because though he's the husband, he is more or less his wife's slave. If he comes, one shouldn't question him about that, as if one would know nothing.* He can't say beforehand if he can come; because whether he can come or not, that depends on his wife.

§ 106. Mult conjunctiones e conjunctional expressiones es composit ex prepositiones o prepositional expressiones o adverbies o adverbial expressiones con que e quam.

per que, por que, pro que, pos que, ante que, durante que, sam quam, desde que, sin que, tant que, suposit que, in condition que.

§ 106. Many conjunctions and conjunctional expressions are composed from prepositions or prepositional expressions or adverbs or adverbial expressions with que and quam.

per que, por que, pro que, pos que, ante que, durante que, sam quam, desde que, sin que, tant que, suposit que, in condition que.

INTERJECTIONESINTERJECTIONS

§107, Quam interjectiones on posse usar omni interjectiones del national lingues, queles es comprensibil per se self o es internationalmen conosset.

Halló! Holá! Hé! Huzza! Hurrá! Yuhé! Huhú! Hu, Hu! Ba! Ay! Uf! Via! Nu! Hopp! Hoppla! Ve! Ho ve! Sus! Psit! Pst! Shut! Sht! Crac! Paf! Plump! Hm! Hum! Fi!

Anc paroles de altri grammatical categories posse esser usat quam interjectiones: p. ex.

Bon! Ad-avan! Retro! For! A-bass! Ad-up! Halt! Auxilie! Adío! Silentie! Corage! Bravo! Vi! Vive! Mey viver! Salve! Salute!

Huhú! Quant li vent ulula circum li dom! Hu, hu! fanfaron! Holá! veni che me! Ba! quo to fa, si il ne vole venir! Uf! finit ti desagreabil labor! Ay! quel dolore! Sus! Sus! al bestie! Subitmen yo audit, que un person dit pst! detra me. Ma ho ve! il ne atentet e plump! il cadet in li aqua. Shut (o shit!) vi li professor, silentie! Fi! quel malodore!

§107, As with interjections one can use all interjections of national languages, which are understandable by themself or internationally known.

Halló! Holá! Hé! Huzza! Hurrá! Yuhé! Huhú! Hu, Hu! Ba! Ay! Uf! Via! Nu! Hopp! Hoppla! Ve! Ho ve! Sus! Psit! Pst! Shut! Sht! Crac! Paf! Plump! Hm! Hum! Fi!

Words of other grammatical categories can also be used as interjections: for example:

Bon! Ad-avan! Retro! For! A-bass! Ad-up! Halt! Auxilie! Adío! Silentie! Corage! Bravo! Vi! Vive! Mey viver! Salve! Salute!

Huhú! Quant li vent ulula circum li dom! Hu, hu! fanfaron! Holá! veni che me! Ba! quo to fa, si il ne vole venir! Uf! finit ti desagreabil labor! Ay! quel dolore! Sus! Sus! al bestie! Subitmen yo audit, que un person dit pst! detra me. Ma ho ve! il ne atentet e plump! il cadet in li aqua. Shut (o shit!) vi li professor, silentie! Fi! quel malodore!

SINTAXSYNTAX
§108. Li position del paroles in li frase es in general líber til un cert gradu. Ma li regulari órdine del frase-partes es:§108. The position of words in a sentence is generally free to a certain extent. But the regular order of the parts of a sentence is:
subject - predicate - acusativ object - dativ object.
subject - predicate - acusativ object - dativ object.
Li patre - da - li libre - al filio.
Li patre - da - li libre - al filio.

§ 109. Li frase es maxim bon comprensibil, si omni paroles sta maxim possibil proxim li parol a quel ili relate. Pro to omni frasepartes es ínmediatmen sequet o precedet de su atributes.

Li bon patre sovente voluntarimen da bell libres a su diligent filio.

§ 109. A phrase is easiest to understand if all words stand as close as possible to the word to which they relate. Because of that all parts of a sentence are immediately followed or preceded by their attributes.

Li bon patre sovente voluntarimen da bell libres a su diligent filio.

(The good father frequently voluntarily gives beautiful books to his diligent son.)

§110. De to seque, que li adjective o atribut adjectivic deve preceder o sequer ínmediatmen li substantive relativ. In general it precede, si it es curt o caracteristic, ma seque, si it es long o complementari.

Il prefere li delicat fructes del Sud. Ti mann, clar in su pensas e pur in su intentiones. Su patre e su matre hat fat omni arangeamentes necessi por su viage. Yo just nu recivet li maxim recent raport aproximativ pri merces, importat in nor land durante ti estive.

§110. From that it follows that the adjective or adjectival attribute should immediately precede or follow the relative noun. In general it precedes, if it is short or characteristic, but follows if it is long or complementary.

He prefers the delicate fruits of the South. That mann, clear in his thoughts and pure in his intentions. His/her father and mother had made all arrangements necessary for his/her voyage. I just now received the most recent approximate report on commodities, important in our land during that summer.

§111. Li adverbies: ne, tre, tro, solmen e anc deve sempre preceder ínmediatmen li parol concernent, che témpores composit ordinarimen li verb auxiliari; li altri adverbies posse ínmediatmen preceder o sequer li parol concernent.

Ne yo ha prendet vor libre — ma un altri person.
Yo ne ha prendet vor libre — ma yo va prender it.
Yo ha ne prendet vor libre — ma on ha dat it a me.
Yo ha prendet ne vor libre — ma un aItri.
Anc yo ama vos. Yo anc ama vos. Yo ama anc vos.

§111. The adverbs: ne, tre, tro, solmen and anc should always immediately precede the concerning word, at times the auxiliary verb is ordinarily composed**; the other adverbs can immediately precede or follow the concerning word..

It was not I that took your book — but another person.
I have not taken your book
— but I will take it.
I have not taken your book
— but one has given it to me.
I have taken not your book
— but another.
I as well love you. (others love you) I also love you (love + other verbs) I love you too (I love other people too)

§112. Li verbes auxiliari (anc: dever, posser, voler etc.) deve sempre preceder li participie respectivmen li infinitive ínmediatmen, o esser separat solmen per concernent adverbies.

Nor amícos hat mult laborat, ma ne posset completmen finir lor ovre. Yo deve aprender ex memorie ti paroles. Yo deve rapidmen aprender ex memorie ti paroles. Yo strax deve aprender ex memorie ti paroles.

§112. Auxiliary verbs (anc: dever, posser, voler etc.) should always precede the participle immediately relative to the infinitive, or be separated only by related adverbs.

Our friends have worked much, but couldn't completely finish their work. I should learn those words from memory. I should quickly learn those words from memory. I immediately should learn those words from memory.

§113. Negativ pronómines e adverbies recive li sens positiv solmen si ne sta ínmediatmen avan les. Li talnominat duplic negation es permisset, ma ne recomendat.

Yo videt necos. Yo ne videt necos. Yo videt ne necos, ma solmen tre poc.

§113. Negative pronouns and adverbs receive the positive sense only if they do not stand immediately before them. So-called double negation is permitted, but not recommended.

I saw no one. I didn't see no one. I didn't see no one, but just a few.

§114. Anc in li frases relativ on usa li sam órdine del frase-partes e li indicative quam in li frases principal. Li subjuntive es usat solmen in rar casus u li distinction es important, p. ex. in juristic documentes; in cert casus on posse anc usar li optative.

Il di, que il es malad. Il pensat que yo ha venit. On esperat, que il bentost va venir. Ella questionat, pro quo yo es tam alegri. Il di, que il haye amat la. Yo desira que il mey venir.

Por indicar li condition, on deve sempre usar: si.

Si ella vell har savet, quo ella save hodíe, ella vell har actet altrimen. Si yo vell esser malad, yo vell restar in hem.

Indirect frases es comensat per: ca (viceat sovente per esque).

Yo ne save, ca yo comprende vos corect. Ca il veni o ne, noi va comensar. Esque vu savet, ca il va venir? Si on vell saver, ca il veni!

Por vicear relativ frases on posse multvez usar li infinitive ínmediatmen pos li verb.

Yo crede que yo ha videt le. Yo crede har videt le. Yo crede vider le.

§114. Also in relative phrases one uses the same order of the parts of phrases and the indicative as in principle phrases. The subjunctive is used only in rare cases where the distinction is important, for example in legal documents; in certain one can also use the optative.

He said that he is sick. He thought that I had come. One hoped that he soon will come. She asked why I am so cheerful. He said that he would have loved her. I hope that he may come.

To indicate a condition, one should always use: si.

If she would have known what she knows today, she would have acted differently. If I were sick, I would stay at home.

Indirect phrases are begun with: ca (often replaced with esque).

I don't know if I understand you correctly. We will begin whether he comes or not. Do you know if he will come? If one were to know if he comes!*

To change relative phrases one can often use the infinitive immediately after the verb.

I believe that I have seen him. (all three are different ways of saying the same thing)

§ 115. Li acusativ pronómin seque ínmediatmen li verb; li dativ pronómin precede it ínmediatmen o seque li acusativ pronómin, con o sin li preposition a.

Yo videt le. Yo te dat it. Yo dat it te. Yo dat it a te.

§116. Li regules indicat por frases direct vale anc por frases interrogativ queles es format per esque o altri paroles interrogativ. Sin li “esque” on posse formar frases interrogativ per posir li subjecte pos li predicate, resp. pos li verb auxiliari.

Esque vu ha comprendet me? Ha vu comprendet me? Quant persones tu crede vider? Crede tu vider mult persones? Qui tu vide? Qui vide te? Posse vu audir me? Pensa vu o dormi?

§ 115. The accusative pronoun immediately follows the verb; the dative pronoun immediately erecedes it or follows the accusative pronoun, with or without the preposition a.

I saw him. I gave it to him. I gave it to him. I gave it to him.

§116. The rules indicates for direct phrases apply also for interrogative phrases which are formed by esque or other interrogative words. With the "esque" one can form interrogative phrases by posing the subject after the predicate, relatively* after the auxiliary verb.

Have you understood me? Have you understood me? How many people you believe you see? Do you believe you see many people? Whom do you see? Who sees you? Can you hear me? Are you thinking or sleeping?

§ 117. Verbes es usat maxim possibil transitivmen, personalmen e activ; ma it sempre es permisset usar un sensconform preposition.

Yo mersía vos. Ples auxiliar li povri mann. Il menaciat su ínamicos. Yo memora li cose tre bon. Il prepara un viage. Il prepara se por un viage. To il solmen imágina. Yo es conscient pri to. Yo senti dolore. Yo regreta. Yo cale, yo frige. Yo successat far it. On dansat e ludet.

Ye li impersonal verbes li pronómin it posse esser omisset, si li sens permisse to.

Yo crede que pluvia. Existe mult exceptiones. Pluvia. It pluvia. It deveni frigid (li temperatura o un cert cose).

§ 117. Verbs are used transitively, personally and and actively as much as possible; but it is always permitted to use an indirect(?) preposition.

I thank you. Please help the poor man. He humiliated his enemier. I remember the thing very well. He prepares for a voyage. He prepares himself for a voyage. That he only imagines.I am aware of that. I feel pain. I regret/am sorry. I am hot, I am cold. I succeeded in doing it. One danced and played.

On the impersonal verbs the pronoun it can be omitted, if the sense permits it.

I believe that it is raining. There are many exceptions. It's raining. It's raining. It becomes cold (the temperature or a certain thing).

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