Grammar of Occidental/Interlingue in Occidental translated into English: part 1

Monday, December 29, 2008


Mostly for my own benefit (I've never really sat down and gone over the grammar bit by bit and thus still make mistakes when writing in the language) I'll be translating the grammar here on Occidental/Interlingue in Occidental. Afterwards I'll probably upload it to a place like scribd.com and then the English will be able to function as another source language for those that can't quite understand the Occidental text well enough to translate it into their own language. Here's part 1:


Occidental
English
ANTEPAROL FOREWORD
Ti grammatica es complet in li sens, que it contene omni essential regules usat in li textus de Cosmoglotta, li oficial organ del Interlingue Union, e in li Complet Cursu de Interlingue de A. Matejka. In plu omni decisiones del Interlingue Academie es egardat.
This grammar is complete in the sense that it contains all essential rules used in the texts of Cosmoglotta, the official organ of the Interlingue Union, and in the "Complet Curse de Interlingue" (Complete Course of Interlingue) by A. Matejka. Moreover*, all decisions by the Interlingue Academy are considered.
In contrast a omni lingues national, on posse dir de Interlingue: Qui aplica li regules de ti grammatica e usa li adequat paroles, parla e scri Interlingue corectmen. Il ne deve timer audir: Yes, on ne trova un erra grammatical in vor lettre, ma null anglese vell expresser su pensas per ti paroles o per ti frase-constructiones! E to constitue li grand facilitá de Interlingue: Chascun nation posse expresser su pensas in li cadre del poc regules grammatical in li maniere acustomat, e deve solmen far atention, ne usar Idiotismes íncomprensibil al altri nationes per usar cert paroles in un altri sens quam li general. Ma li regules grammatical es tre simplic e sin exceptiones, talmen que on posse realmen mastrisar les in extrem curt témpor. In plu un grand parte del regules confirma solmen, que li ja conosset regules del lingue matrin vale anc in Interlingue.
In contrast to all national languages, one can say of Interlingue: Who applies the rules of this grammar and uses the proper (adequate) words, speaks and writes Interlingue correctly. He does not have to fear hearing: "Yes, I see no grammatical errors in your letter, but no English people would express their thoughts with these words or these sentence constructions!" And that constitutes the great easy of Interlingue: Each nation can express their thoughts in the frame of few grammatical rules in the accustomed manner, and only needs to pay attention toward not using idiomatic expressions incomprehensible to other nations through using certain words in another sense than the general one. But the grammatical rules are very simple and without exceptions, so that one can truly master them in a very short time. In addition* a large part of the rules simply confirm that the already-known rules in one's mother tongue work (avail) also in Interlingue.
On posse dunc dir sin exageration, que Interlingue es mult plu facil quam li precedent projectes de lingue international e íncomparabilmen plu simplic quam omni lingues national, mem in simplificat form. To vale ne solmen por li comprension, ma anc por li aprensíon e specialmen anc por li aplication del lingue.
One can therefore say without exaggeration, that Interlingue is much easier than the preceding international language projects and incomparably simpler than all national languages, even in simplified form. That works not only for comprehension, but also for the study and also for the application of the language.
Winterthur (Svissia), octobre 1956.
Winterthur (Switzerland), October 1956.
Li nómine Occidental del lingue international creat de Edgar von Wahl esset 1949 viceat per li nómine Interlingue, sin changear li lingue self, por evitar li politic aspecte del nómine “Occidental-Union”.The name Occidental of the international language created by Edgar von Wahl was in 1949 changed to the name Interlingue, without changing the language itself, to avoid the political aspect of the name “Occidental-Union”.
ALFABETALPHABET
§ 1. Interlingue es scrit per 26 lítteres latin: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, I, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.§ 1. Interlingue is written through 26 latin letters: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, I, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.

§ 2. Li alfabet es pronunciat:

a, be, ce, de, e, ef, ge, ha, i, jot, ka, el, em, en, o, pe, qu, er, es, te, u, ve, duplic ve, ix, ypsilon, zet.

§ 2. The alphabet is pronounced:

a, be, ce, de, e, ef, ge, ha, i, jot, ka, el, em, en, o, pe, qu, er, es, te, u, ve, duplic ve, ix, ypsilon, zet.

PRONUNCIATIONPRONUNCIATION
§ 3. Li vocales es sempre clarmen pronunciat quam seque:§ 3. The vowels are always clearly pronounced as follows:

a quam in F (francesi), o G (german), o H (hispan), o I (italian),o A (anglesi): father. vase, batte, batter.

a as in F (French), or G (German), or S (Spanish), or I (Italian), or E (English): father. vase, batte, batter.

e apert o cludet, quam GHI, A: bed, yes, F: é o è. pena, mensu, pelle, venir.

e open or closed, as GSI, E: bed, yes, F: é or è. pena, mensu, pelle, venir.

i quam FGHI, A: machine. nive, six, minute.

i as FGSI, E: machine. nive, six, minute.

o apert o cludet, quam FGHI, A: door, hot. modic, póndere, porta, ponderar.

o open or closed, as FGSI, A: door, hot. modic, póndere, porta, ponderar.

u quam GHI, A: rule, pull, F: ou; pos q tre curt, presc consonantic (w). brun, mult, sudar, quar.

u as GSI, A: rule, pull, F: ou; after q very short, almost consonantal (w). brun, mult, sudar, quar.

y pos un vocal, e in li comensa de un parol anc avan un vocal, és consonantic, altriloc vocalic.
y vocalic es pronunciat quam Int (Interlingué) i. physica.

y after a vowel, and in the beginning of a word or before a vowel is a consonant, otherwise a vowel.
vocalic y is pronounced as Int (Interlingué) i. physica.

De du o pluri vocales succedent chascun es pronunciat. Inaccentuat i e u avan vocales e in li combinationes au e eu (u anc li a e li e es curt) es tre curt, presc consonantic, e ne posse formar propri síllabes.Of two or multiple following vowels each is pronounced. Unaccented i and u before vowels and in the combinations au and eu (u likewise a and e are short) is very short, almost like a consonant, and cannot form proper syllables.

leôn *, creatôr, mêdie, mediôcri, mêdium, lìngue, linguâl, lìnguìstic, trottuôre, càude, neutrâl, arcâic, vîa, revûe.

* Signes ilustrativ, ne a scrir: ê: long, è: curt.

leôn *, creatôr, mêdie, mediôcri, mêdium, lìngue, linguâl, lìnguìstic, trottuôre, càude, neutrâl, arcâic, vîa, revûe.

* Illustrative signs, not to be written: ê: long, è: short.

In plu un strict regul pri li pronunciation long o curt, cludet o apert del vocales ne existe. Preferibil es li pronunciationes simil a FGHI.

Also, a strict rule on the long or short, closed or open pronounciation of the vowels does not exist. Pronounciations similar to FGSI are preferable.

Qui ne conosse alcun de ti pronunciationes posse sequer li indicationes del § 4 quam recomendation, ma ne quam regul strict o complet.

One who does not know some of these pronunciations can follow the indications in § 4 as a recommendation, but not as a strict or complete rule.

§ 4. In general vocales accentuat es passabilmen long; ma avan c final, ch, x, o avan pluri consonantes (exceptet r o I con precedent diferent consonant), e in li curt grammatical paroles ili es curt. Vocales ínaccentuat es plu o min curt.§ 4. In general accented vowels are fairly long; but in front of a final c, ch, x, or in front of several consonants (excepting r or I with a preceding different consonant), and in the small grammatical words, are short. Unaccented vowels are more or less short.

A, i, u have sempre un medial sonalitá bon distinctibil del altri vocales. Accentuat e e o es cludet, si ili es long, e avan m e n, apert in omni altri casus. E e o ínaccentuat es plu o min cludet.

A, i, u always have a medial sonality quite distinct from other vowels. Accented e and o are closed, if they are long, and before m and n, open in all other cases. Unaccented e and o are more or less closed.

marchâr*, vidêr, venîr, sonôri, constructôr, constructiôn, chèc, iràc, depèche, paradòx, pâtre, splìttre, câble, pèlle, dilëmma, cömma, mënte, mönte, atàcca, fòsse, transpòrt, idê, burô, cön, ë, li, më.

marchâr*, vidêr, venîr, sonôri, constructôr, constructiôn, chèc, iràc, depèche, paradòx, pâtre, splìttre, câble, pèlle, dilëmma, cömma, mënte, mönte, atàcca, fòsse, transpòrt, idê, burô, cön, ë, li, më.

*Signes ilustrativ, ne a scrir: ê: long e cludet, ë: curt e cludet, è: curt e apert.

*Illustrative signs, not to be written: ê: long and closed, ë: short and closed, è: short and open.

§ 5. Li consonantes es pronunciat quam seque:

§ 5. The consonants are pronounced as follows:

b, d, f, I, m, n, p quam in AFGI, H (b = b in boca).

bon, editer, fratre, long, matre, null, pede.

De duplic consonantes li duesim es pronunciat solmen si it es pronunciat altrimen quam li prim. acceptar, suggester.

b, d, f, I, m, n, p as in EFGI, S (b = b in boca).

bon, editer, fratre, long, matre, null, pede.

Of doubled consonants the second is pronounced only if it is pronounced differently from the first. acceptar, suggester.

c avan e, i, y = ts, altriloc quam k. centre, reciver, cilindre, concert, acceptar, electric, electricitá.

ch F, A: sh, G: sch, permisset anc A: ch, H: ch, ma ne recomendat;

avan consonantes quam k. machine, marchar, chec; chloroform.

c before e, i, y = ts, otherwise as k. centre, reciver, cilindre, concert, acceptar, electric, electricitá.

ch F, A: sh, G: sch, also permitted A: ch, H: ch, but not recommended;

before consonantes as k. machine, marchar, chec; chloroform.

g avan e, i, y: AFI, G: dulci sch quam in generös, altriloc AFGHI (gn maxim possibil g-n, ne nye). gage, gigant, garage, gimnastica, guvernar, grisi, suggestion, magnific.

gh in quelc rar paroles avan e, i, y quam g avan a. ghetto.

g before e, i, y: EFI, G: soft sch as in generös, otherwise EFGSI (gn as much as possible g-n, not nye). gage, gigant, garage, gimnastica, guvernar, grisi, suggestion, magnific.

gh in some rare words before e, i, y as g before a. ghetto.

h sempre aspirat quam AG. hom, adherer.

h always aspirated as EG. hom, adherer.

j quam F, A: vision, G: dulci sch quam Journal, dunc quam Int g avan e. jurnalist, manjar, jokey.

j as F, E: vision, G: soft sch as Journal, thus as Int g before e. jurnalist, manjar, jokey.

k e kh quam c dur. kilogramm, Khedive. ph quam f (in grec paroles). telephon.

k e kh as hard c. kilogramm, Khedive. ph as f (in Greek words). telephon.

qu quam k, sempre sequet de tre curt u: AGI, F e H con u. quar, aqua.

qu as k, always followed by a very short u: EGI, F and S with u. quar, aqua.

r FGHI. radie, merce.

rh quam r (in grec paroles). rheumatisme.

r FGSI. radie, merce.

rh as r (in Greek words). rheumatisme.

s sonori inter vocales, dur in omni altri casus. cose, position, pos, es, roses, altesse, divers, sospirar, posta.

ss quam s dur. casse.

sh, sch quam A: sh, F: ch, G: sch (existe solmen in quelc paroles por conservar li natural aspecte). shrapnell, schema.

s sonorous between vowels, hard in all other cases. cose, position, pos, es, roses, altesse, divers, sospirar, posta.

ss as hard s. casse.

sh, sch as E: sh, F: ch, G: sch (exists only in some words to conserve the natural aspect). shrapnell, schema.

t es sibilant (quam ts) avan ia, ie, io, iu, si ne un s precede, altriloc quam AFGHI. tolerantie, tentar, tentation, hostie.

th quam t (in grec paroles). theosoph, lithograph.

t is sibilant (as ts) before ia, ie, io, iu, if there is no preceding s, otherwise EFGSI. tolerantie, tentar, tentation, hostie.

th as t (in Greek words). theosoph, lithograph.

v quam AFHI, G: w. venir, dever, nive.

w rar, quam A, curt Int: u. west.

x dur o dulci, quam AFG, H: examinar. examinar, extra.

y consonantic quam A, F: yeux, G: j, H: ayustar. yes, rayon, antey.

z dulci (ds), si possibil, altrimen dur (ts). zefir.

zz dur (ts). plazza.

v as EFSI, G: w. venir, dever, nive.

w is rare, as E, short Int: u. west.

x hard or soft, as EFG, S: examinar. examinar, extra.

y consonantal as E, F: yeux, G: j, S: ayustar. yes, rayon, antey.

z soft (ds), if possible, otherwise hard (ts). zefir.

zz hard (ts). plazza.

§ 6. Li experientie pruva que litt variationes in li pronunciation ne gena li comprension. Pro to it es permisset pronunciar li y vocalic quam F: u, G: ù, qu quam kw, ch quam tsch, j sempre e g sequet de e, i, y quam dj.

cylindre, quadre, marchar, chef, jurnal, gengive.

Qui have desfacilitá in li pronunciation de cert combinationes de consonantes final con li consonantes initial del sequent parol posse intercalar un demimut E, ma sin scrir it.

§ 6. Experience proves that small variations in in pronunciation do not encumber comprehension. Because of this it is permitted to pronounce the vocalic y as F: u, G: ù, qu as kw, ch as tsch, j always g followed by e, i, y as dj.

cylindre, quadre, marchar, chef, jurnal, gengive.

Those with difficulty in the pronunciation of certain combinations of final consonent with the initial consonants of the following word can insert a semimute E, but without writing it.

§ 7. Paroles extran es pronunciat maxim possibil quam in li lingue de orígine.

Champagne, cognac.

§ 7. Foreign words are pronounced as close as possible as in the language of origin.

Champagne, cognac.

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